Ano Rectal Diseases


Description: Rectum is the last part of the large intestine that begins from the lower end of the sigmoid colon and terminates in the anal canal. As the rectum approaches the anus, it becomes large and forms the rectal ampulla. The size of the adult rectum is 10 to 15 centimeters long.

Function: The main function of the rectum is to store stool temporarily until there is an urge to defecate. The rectum is also involved in the absorption of water and electrolytes.

Common Diseases: The common diseases of rectum include: Rectal prolapse, anorectal fistula, rectovaginal fistula, rectal cancer, rectal bleeding, rectal pain, rectal polyp.


Description: Anus is part of the lower digestive tract. It passes through the anal canal and anal sphincters and creates a posterior opening at the terminal end of the large intestine through which stool is eliminated out of the body. The size of the adult anus is 4 to 5 centimeters long. Many anal glands are present for keeping the surface moist to ease the expulsion of stool.

Function: The primary function is the expulsion of stool from the body. The sphincter muscles are responsible for controlling stool. When there is a bowel movement, the internal anal sphincter drives the stool from the rectum to the anal canal and the external anal sphincter drives out the stool from the body through the anus.

Common Diseases: The common diseases of anus include: Hemorrhoids, anal fissures, anal fistula, anal stenosis, anal bleeding, anal itching, anal abscess and anal cancer. Abscess in the perennial region too can be considered in this category.

What causes ano rectal problems?

Anal fissure:

  • Common causes: constipation, straining during bowel movement, hard stool, childbirth, inflammatory bowel diseases, chronic diarrhea, long standing misuse/overuse of laxatives and anal sex.
  • Less common causes: HIV, syphilis, tuberculosis, herpes, anal cancer.

Anal fistula:

Anal stenosis:

  • Complication due to anorectal surgical procedures.
  • Radiation therapy

Anal cancer:

  • Human papillomavirus
  • Smoking

Rectal prolapse:

  • Chronic constipation
  • Weak pelvic floor muscles
  • Weak anal sphincter muscles

Rectovaginal fistula:

  • Injury after childbirth
  • A surgery in the pelvic area
  • Radiation therapy in the pelvic area.

Rectal cancer:

  • Smoking
  • Family history

Rectal pain:

  • Common causes: chronic constipation/diarrhea, anal itching
  • Less common causes: hemorrhoids, infection, fissure/fistula/prolapse, cancer, foreign body

Perianal/Anal itching:

  • Improper cleaning of the area
  • Cleaning the area with hot water and scented soap/toilet paper
  • Food and beverages (spicy foods, chocolates, excess Vitamin C, coffee/tea, and alcohol)
  • Hemorrhoids
  • Infection

Ano rectal bleeding:

  • Hemorrhoids
  • Fistula
  • Fissure
  • Polyp
  • Cancer

Ano rectal abscess:

  • Blocked anal gland
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Infected anal fissure


  • Chronic constipation/diarrhea
  • Pregnancy
  • Increase of pressure in the veins due to various reasons

Lifestyle to avoid ano rectal problems:

  1. An adequate fluid intake.
  2. Having adequate fiber in your diet.
  3. Proper habits during defecation/bowel movements.
  • Do not excessively clean the area.
  • Use water and avoid cleansing with wipes and scented soaps.
  • Do not spend too much time in the toilet (no more than two minutes).
  • Squatting position aids in proper evacuation of stool.
  • Do not strain while defecating.
  • Do not delay your time to have a bowel movement.
  1. Eat proper meals on time to avoid constipation.
  2. A good exercise habit for 30 minutes.
  • Regular exercise – exercises such as stretching and brisk walking to strengthen the muscles including the bowel muscles and to keep the digestive system healthy.
  • Sphincter exercise – improves your bowel control, strengthens the muscles, and prevents any leakage.
  • Yoga – a regular practice of asanas, pranayam, niyama, surya namaskaras, and meditation. These yoga practices along with Pavanmuktasan, Shalabhasana, Vakrasana, Nauli, Bhujangasana, Tadasan, Uddiyan and Ashwini – mudra are helpful.
  1. Treat ongoing diarrhea.
  2. Taking breaks between works.

When medical attention is needed, find the best proctologist at Shreyas Ano Rectal Hospital and Research Center ( to receive the best piles treatment in India.